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Herniated Disc (Cervical)

Herniated Disc (Cervical) Sp

Herniation of a disc is an anomalous spine condition characterized by leakage of the inner contents of the intervertebral disc, due to cracks in its outer wall. A herniated disc is commonly seen in the cervical or neck region, a condition called cervical herniated disc (CHD).

Herniated Disc (Lumbar)

Herniated Disc (Lumbar) Sp

Herniated disc is a condition in which the outer fibers (annulus) of the intervertebral disc are damaged causing the soft inner material of the nucleus pulposus to rupture out of its space. A herniated disc, common in the lower back (lumbar spine) occurs when there is a tear in the outer lining of the disc (annulus fibrosus).

Spinal Instability

Spinal Instability Sp

Spinal instability refers to the condition of failure of the spinal column to maintain its normal structure. Normally, the spine functions to protect and provide support to the body and its internal organs. An unstable spine is incapable of holding various spinal structures such as spinal muscles, ligaments, bones, and discs in place.

Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease Sp

Lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common cause of lower back pain. Over time, these natural shock absorbers wear out and degenerate. Degenerative disc disease is not actually a disease but refers to the changes in the spine that occur as a part of the normal aging process.

Lumbar Disc Herniation

Lumbar Disc Herniation Sp

Lumbar disc herniation is the most common cause of lower back pain and leg pain (sciatica). Aging, injury or trauma may cause the annulus fibrosus to tear, resulting in protrusion of the nucleus pulposus. This may compress the spinal nerves and/or spinal canal.

Disc Herniation

Disc Herniation Sp

Disc herniation is one of the common causes of back pain. The intervertebral discs are flat and round, present between the vertebrae and act as shock absorbers when you walk or run. There is a soft, gelatinous material in the center (nucleus pulposus) that is encased in strong elastic tissue to form a ring around it called annulus fibrosus.

Spine Deformities

Spine Deformities Sp

The spine or backbone provides stability to the upper part of our body. It helps to hold the body upright. It consists of a series of irregularly-shaped bones appearing in a straight line. The spine has two gentle curves, when viewed from the side and appears to be straight when viewed from the front.


Sciatica Sp

Sciatica is a painful condition caused by the irritation of the sciatic nerve. Sciatica can be acute (short term), lasting for a few weeks or chronic (long term), persisting for more than 3 months. It is important to understand that in most cases, sciatica will resolve itself within a few weeks or months and rarely causes permanent nerve damage.


Scoliosis Sp

Scoliosis is a condition characterized by the abnormal curvature of the spine that causes a deviation to one side. It causes a physical deformity, making the spine look like the letter “C” or “S” instead of the letter “I”. Scoliosis can affect either the mid or lower back. Scoliosis of the mid back is more common. Scoliosis can occur at any age.

Degenerative Disc Disease

Degenerative Disc Disease Sp

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) refers to the gradual deterioration of the intervertebral discs between the vertebrae. DDD is a misnomer as it is not actually a disease but a condition that affects the strength, resilience and structural integrity of the intervertebral discs due to advancing age, trauma, injury, repetitive movement, improper posture or poor body mechanics.

Thoracic Nerve Compression

Thoracic Nerve Compression Sp

Thoracic nerve compression refers to a compressed nerve root in the thoracic region of the spine, also called the upper back. The spine is made up of several bones called vertebrae and the spinal cord runs through a passage or canal in the center of these bones. Nerve roots split from the cord and pass between the vertebrae into several areas of the body.

Peripheral Nerve Compression

Peripheral Nerve Compression Sp

The human body has 2 nervous systems, the central nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system that includes a network of nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system transmits signals from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of your body.

Cervical Fracture

Cervical Fracture Sp

Cervical fractures are common in motor vehicle accidents, sports activities and falls. The second, sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae are frequently involved in fractures, which may injure the spinal cord.

Cervical Degenerative Disorder

Cervical Degenerative Disorder Sp

Cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a misnomer as it is not a disease but a condition that affects the strength, resiliency and structural integrity of the intervertebral discs due to increasing age, trauma, injury, repetitive movement, improper posture, or poor body mechanics.

Herniated Disc

Herniated Disc Sp

The bones in the spinal column called vertebrae surround the spinal cord and other nerves and are cushioned by soft intervertebral discs that act as shock absorbers for the spine. The intervertebral discs are composed of a jelly-like nucleus pulposus at the center, surrounded by a fibrous ring called the annulus fibrosus.

Spinal Stenosis

Spinal Stenosis Sp

Spinal stenosis is a condition caused by the vertebral column constricting and exerting pressure on the spinal cord or neural foramen (a bony tunnel through which a nerve exits the spinal cord). Spinal stenosis usually affects the cervical and lumbar spine. If the spinal canal is narrowed, the disorder is called cervical/lumbar central stenosis.

Cervical Disc Herniation

Cervical Disc Herniation Sp

Cervical disc herniation is associated with pain. The degenerative changes in the disc can result in a reduction in disc height which can cause compression of the spinal cord and the spinal nerves. In addition, the exuding disc matter causes pain and inflammation of the nerve due to chemical irritation.

Lumbar Sprain

Lumbar Sprain Sp

Lumbar (low back) sprains are one of the most common causes of low back pain. A lumbar sprain is characterized as an injury to one or more ligaments (tissue that connects adjacent bones) in the lower back. It can have different levels of severity, including stretching and partial or complete tear of ligaments from their attachment site.

  • American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery
  • American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
  • North American Spine Society
  • California Orthopaedic Association
  • Society for Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery
  • Korean American Spine Society
  • International Society for the Advancement of Spine Surgery
  • Cervical Spine Research Society